Fath Ali Shah (1834-1772 AD)
Fat′h Ali Shah was the son of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar, brother of Agha Mohammad Khan. He was governor of Fars when his uncle was assassinated in 1797. Fat′h Ali shah’s real name was “Bābā Khān” but he was crowned as Fat′h Ali Shah. He became suspicious of his chancellor Hajji Ebrahim Khan Kalantar and ordered his execution. Hajji Ebrahim Khan had been chancellor to Zand and Qajar rulers for some fifteen years.
Much of his reign was marked by the resurgence of Persian arts and painting, as well as a deeply elaborate court culture with extremely rigid etiquette. In particular during his reign, portraiture and large-scale oil painting reached a height previously unknown under any other Islamic dynasty, largely due to his personal patronage.
Fat′h Ali also ordered the creation of much royal regalia, including coronations chairs, “Takht-e-Tâvoos” (Persian: تخت طاووس) or Peacock throne and “Takht-e-Nāderī” (Persian: تخت نادری) or Naderi throne, which was also used by later kings, and the “Tāj-i-Kīyānī” (Persian: تاج كيانى), or Kiani Crown, a modification of the crown of the same name created by his uncle Agha Mohammad Khan. This, like most of his regalia, was studded with a large number of pearls and gems.
In 1797, he was given a complete set of the Britannica’s 3rd edition, which he read completely; after this feat, he extended his royal title to include “Most Formidable Lord and Master of the Encyclopædia Britannica.”